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Archaeological Investigations Within the Proposed U.S. 61 Corridor North of Canton in Lewis and Clark Counties Missouri, Volume IV:  Excavations at the Baxter Lake (23LE41) and Logsdon Fan (23CK59) Sites



Baker Lake SiteData recovery investigations at the Baxter Lake site consisted of the hand excavation of two blocks (Block A and Block B) and plowzone stripping to locate sub–plowzone features. No features were identified during plowzone stripping at the site. The archaeological deposits in Block B appear to have been disturbed by natural colluvial processes. Archaeological deposits in Block A were intact and undisturbed. The excavations and analysis focused on the Block A materials where several Early Archaic activity areas were identified. The Early Archaic occupation was indicated by Hardin Barbed Cluster hafted bifaces recovered along with other lithic materials from a sub–plowzone context.

The excavations and analysis of the materials from Block A indicated three artifact concentrations that appear to represent three activity areas within the site. Three fragmentary Hardin Barbed hafted bifaces were recovered from the Block Aexcavations. Two of the identified activity areas at the site appear to represent the manufacture of bifacial cores and large bifaces for transport and use elsewhere. Relatively high densities of flake debris, cores (mostly bifacial), and bifaces were recovered from these two concentrations. The third activity area appears to represent a general habitation area. Material density was much lighter in this area of the site, though a greater variety of artifact classes were represented.

The archaeologial investigation and subsequent analysis indicates that a number of short-term occupations are represented at the site. These short-term occupations created a thin scatter of materials across the block during the Early Archaic occupations at the site.

Logsdon Fan

Archaeological investigations at the Logsdon Fan site were conducted in three sequential stages. Stage I investigations at the site consisted of the excavation of 20 units. The units were systematically placed within the utility corridor in the vicinity of the initial discoveries to better define these deposits. Unit excavation indicated that the near-surface component did not contribute to the site’s National Register of Historic Places eligibility. Large blocks of the utility corridor were then mechanically excavated to sample and recover data from the deeper cultural zone. Excavation units were then arranged across the block and trench floors to sample these deeper deposits.

Additional units, trenches, and auger cores were excavated during the Stage II investigations at Logsdon Fan. These excavations helped in defining the vertical and horizontal distribution of materials and cultural deposits at the site. Two localities (A and B) were investigated through the use of trenches and excavation units. Early Archaic materials were identified within the deeper deposits in these localities. In addition, three hearths were identified and excavated within these deposits. All three hearths were associated with the Early Archaic occupation of the site.

A block excavation conducted in Locality C comprised the Stage III investigations. A high density of lithic artifacts (flakes, tools, and cores) were recovered from an approximately 20–30 cm thick zone that occurred above glacial gravels. The lack of prehistoric pottery and the stratigraphy suggest that these deposits may be from a similar time period (Early Archaic) to the components at Localities A and B.

The main focus of the excavationsand analysis at Logsdon Fan was on the Early Archaic components identified at the site. Subsistence remains from the site were limited and consisted solely of ethnobotanical materials. Faunal remains were not preserved. The ethnobotanical materials represent materials that were burnt in hearths used for heating. None of the ethnobotanical remains represent actual food items. Few tool types (bifaces, unifaces, drills, cobble tools) were recovered from the excavations at the site. Locally occurring materials dominated the chipped stone assemblage. The Early Archaic components appear to represent low intensity occupations (small groups of people for short durations). BlocksBlocks
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